Generally, there is not a single organ in the body that is not damaged by cigarette smoke, including the heart. This is because in one cigarette contains 4,000 chemical compounds 40 of which include toxins and carcinogenic (can cause cancer).
To understand how cigarettes damage your heart, it is important first to know how the heart works. The heart is responsible for performing various functions, the most important is the function to pump blood throughout the body.
The heart provides oxygenated blood to the tissues and organs of the body. Oxygenation of blood is essentially a process of combining oxygen with blood, which is a function of the lungs.
The right side of the heart takes oxygenated blood and pumps it into the lungs for oxygenation, and the left side receives blood back from the lungs that contain oxygen. Then this oxygen-containing blood will be pumped by the heart muscle throughout the body for tissues and various organs.
Well, toxins in cigarettes can damage the heart's normal working system. There are two heart-destroying chemicals contained in a small cigarette, which is carbon monoxide and nicotine.
Air Pollution Caused By Human Beings
No doubt in our daily life, clean free air is actually damaged by humans themselves. Smoke factories, vehicle fumes, combustion fumes and cigarette smoke vying to reduce the amount of oxygen in the air.
A medium-size machine is usually capable of generating 10-20% of CO gas (Carbon monoxide), a gas that feels pain when it hit the eye. Cigarettes are burned even though only one bar will be able to produce 3 - 6% CO so that three cigarettes are able to match the plant engine in terms of CO production. Can you imagine how the pollution that we face every day, not only from the factory or the vehicle engine but from millions of people?
The Origin Of Cigarettes
Cigarettes became known in the Indian tribe as a ritual ceremony.
The cigarette burned will produce thousands of harmful substances, but in this case, we discuss only the gas CO, and nicotine.
Gas CO produced by a cigarette can reach 3 - 6%, this gas can be suction by anyone. By the person who smokes or the person closest to the smoker, or the person who is in one room. A person who smokes will inhale only 1/3 of a part, the middle or mid-stream stream, while the side-stream will remain outside. After that, the smoker will not swallow all the smoke but he blows it out again.
CO gas has the ability to bind hemoglobin (Hb) contained in red blood cells (erythrocytes) is stronger than oxygen, so that any smoke cigarette in addition to reduced air oxygen levels, plus red blood cells will be more deprived of oxygen, because that is transported is CO and not O2 (oxygen).
The body cells that suffer from lack of oxygen will try to improve through vessel compensation by shrinking or spasm. When the same process lasts long and continuous blood vessels will easily be damaged by the occurrence of the process of atherosclerosis (narrowing). Narrowing of blood vessels will occur everywhere. In the brain, in the heart, in the lungs, in the kidneys, in the legs, in the uterine tubes, in the placenta in pregnant women.
It can be understood that the narrowing can result in blockage in the brain, narrowing of the heart's blood vessels, chronic lung disease, the leg calf becomes sick even to the dry decay (gangrene), infertility, miscarriage or infant death in the womb, or premature birth or disability. Anyway, any existing organs of blood vessels will be attacked.
Nicotine contained in cigarettes smoked between 0.5 – 3 ng and everything is absorbed, resulting in blood plasma or fluid between 40 – 50 ng\/ml.
The effects of nicotine cause stimulation of the hormone catecholamine (adrenaline) which is spurring the heart and blood pressure. The heart is not given a break and blood pressure will be higher, resulting in the emergence of hypertension.
Other effects stimulate to form a platelet group (blood clotting cells), platelets will clot and eventually will clog the blood vessels that have been narrowed due to smoke containing CO that comes from cigarettes. From the above description, both CO and nicotine racing narrowed blood vessels and clog them all at once. For that, there is no other word for us except “Stop Smoking”.
The Relationship Of Smoking With Heart Disease
For a smoker, smoke will damage the walls of the blood vessels. Then nicotine contained in smoke will stimulate adrenaline hormone which as a result will change the fat metabolism where HDL level will drop. Adrenaline will also cause stimulation of heart work and to constrict the blood vessels (spasm). In addition to the adrenaline would cause a grouping of platelets.
So that all the process of constriction will happen. So the smoke that seems to be simple that could be a cause of coronary heart disease.
So also stress factor that finally through the adrenaline hormone, cause coronary heart disease process occurs as smoke earlier. Someone who stresses and then takes flight with the way smoking actually is to enlarge the process of coronary heart disease on himself.
Around 90% obliterans arteritis patients on level III and IV generally will suffer also heart disease. Because of the process of coronary artery constriction that cut the heart muscles, The lack of between the needs with the supply arises lack of blood (ischemia). When doing physical activity or stress the lack of increased flow to cause chest pain (angina pectoris). Dilation weight or clogging of one or more coronary artery ended with the death of a network (myocardial infarct, heart attack). The complications of myocardial infarction patients including cardiac arrhythmia (heart rhythm is not regular or the heart of sudden stops. Ischemia that can cause the muscles of the heart loses its ability to pump (heart failure) so that the collection of fluid in the edge network (swelling/edema feet) or a buildup of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema).
People who smoke more than 20 cigarettes per day have a risk of 6 times the affected myocardial infarct compared to non-smokers. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the industrial countries, namely around 30 percent of all deaths due to heart disease associated with the result of smoking.