Minggu, 25 Februari 2018

The Risk Of Smoking For Oral Health

Not only the heart and lungs that will be negatively affected by smoking. Oral health is one of the things that will be adversely affected by smoking.

The Impact on Oral Health

Smoking and the use of other tobacco products be the cause of most problems of gums in adults. Smoking can increase the risk of the development of gum disease. Tobacco inhibits blood flow to the gums, thus making the gum shortage of nutrients, oxygen and susceptible to developing infections. In addition, smoking impact to damage the lining of the bones and tissues of the teeth.
Depending on the amount and duration of smoking, smokers are at risk of experiencing the following problems

•    Discoloration of the teeth

 The color of the tooth discoloration will occur due to smoking. discolored teeth become yellow.

•     Smell foul breath that is settled

 Bad breath is a common problem experienced by many people of all ages.
On the other hand, bad breath turns foul can also be an indication of the existence of certain diseases.

•    Reduced bone density in the jaw

Smoking can also lead to risks of bone disease such as osteoporosis.

•    Periodontitis

Infection caused bacteria in the oral cavity resulting in damage to the tissues supporting the teeth.

•    Increased buildup of plaque and tartar

Cigarettes are also a source of the buildup of plaque and tartar, dental plaque can cause various damage to your teeth and gums.

•    Increased Risk of Sinusitis

Sinusitis is inflammation or inflammation of the sinus wall. Sinus is a small cavity filled with air that lies behind the cheekbones and forehead. Sinusitis is a common disease that can infect people of all ages.

Some types of sinusitis based on how long the time of disease, among others :

  1. Sinusitis Recurrence 
  2. Sinusitis Chronic
  3. Sub-acute Sinusitis
  4. Acute Sinusitis

•    Inflammation of the Salivary Gland

Salivary gland works to produce saliva. However, the salivary glands can also be disrupted by the following five performance. The salivary gland consists of four pairs, the parotid gland (between the base of the jaw and ear), sublingual (between the base of the mouth and bottom of the tongue), submandibular (beneath the curve of the jaw), and buccal (the mucous membrane lining the cheeks and mouth).

Unfortunately, many of the problems that can interfere with the function of the salivary glands and salivary ducts blocking up to result in the saliva cannot flow into the oral cavity. When saliva helps us to chew and swallow food, protect the tooth from bacteria, and contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of food.

When the duct or salivary glands are problematic, signs of dry mouth, fever, pain, swollen salivary glands, and spittle feel uncomfortable.

•    The risk of incidence of white patches inside the mouth called leukoplakia.

•    Increased risk of gum disease

•    This condition is the main cause of tooth loss.

•     Increased risk of holes in the teeth.

 The Hazards of Non-Smoked Tobacco

In addition to being the basic ingredients of cigarettes, in some countries, tobacco leaves can be chewed or sucked. This chewing tobacco is generally only produced by small-scale and non-branded home businesses or even rolled out for personal consumption only.

Unfortunately, tobacco non-suction it was more dangerous than smoking. Tobacco contains more than 25 risky chemicals cause cancer of the mouth and throat. Tobacco use being chewed can cause body exposed to nicotine content far more than smoking. In addition, tobacco non-suction can cause irritation and thin of the lining of the gums, so teeth become more sensitive.

And even more, dangerous smoking can also cause oral cancer. Then what is mouth cancer and what are the dangers of oral cancer?

What Is Oral Cancer?

Oral cancer is cancer that grows and develops in the mouth. For example on the lips, tongue, gums, walls of the mouth, and the palate. This cancer can spread directly to the tissues around the mouth or through the lymph nodes. Oral cancer is a rare type of cancer, which is only about 2 percent of all cancer cases.

Oral cancer can strike the elderly aged 50-75 years of age and is more common in men than women. However, this cancer can also occur among young adults, mainly due to HPV infection (human papillomavirus human).

Types of Oral Cancer 

The most common oral cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. It is estimated that about 90 percent of people with oral cancer suffer from this type.

Other types of oral cancers are malignant oral melanoma and adenocarcinoma. Malignant oral melanoma is cancer that develops from the melanocytes cells in the mouth. While adenocarcinoma is cancer that attacks the salivary glands.

Symptoms of Mouth Cancer Like cancer in general, oral cancer rarely causes symptoms in the early stages so difficult to detect. However, beware if you experience signs like :

  1. Mouth sores are not healed in a few weeks.
  2. Mouth sores were bleeding.
  3. Red spots or white in the mouth.
  4.  A lump or thickening on the wall in the persistent mouth lost.
  5. Swollen lymph nodes neck not healed and healed.
  6. Pain in the mouth, especially the tongue.
  7. Difficult or pain when swallowing and chewing.
  8. The teeth wobble without cause is clear.
  9. Voice change or how to talk (e.g. become Lisp).
  10.  Having difficulty when talking.Swollen lymph nodes in the neck
  11. .The jaw feels stiff or sick.
  12. A sore throat.

Symptoms of oral cancer also tend to be difficult to recognize because it is often similar to other disease indications. Stay alert and consult a doctor immediately if the symptoms do not heal for more than 3 weeks, especially for heavy smokers or people who often consume liquor.

Causes And Risk Factors For Oral Cancer 

Oral cancer is caused by abnormal changes or mutations in the development of the cells in the mouth or lips. The causes of these mutations are not yet known for sure. However, there are several factors which can trigger the emergence of this cancer. Among these are :

1.    Use of all types of tobacco, as cigarettes, cigars, and tobacco chewing them.
2.    Consume strong drink excessive force.
3.    experiencing HPV infections (Human Papillomavirus).
4.    Poor eating patterns.
5.    The cleanliness of the mouth is not awake, for example, leave cavities or gum experiencing infection.
6.    Chewing the fruit of pinang.
7.    Declining immune system.

Oral Cancer Diagnosis

In the diagnostic process, your doctor will ask for your symptoms and check your mouth condition. If suspected of having oral cancer, you will be advised to undergo a biopsy or tissue sampling to ensure the presence or absence of cancer cells.

Incision Biopsy. In this method, the patient will be given a local anesthetic on the area to be on the incision. The doctor will then slice off a small portion of the part that will be examined. The wound incision scars it will then be sewn back on.

Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology. Also called fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), and is often chosen when there is swelling in the neck area which is thought to derive from the cancer cells from inside the mouth. This procedure is usually done concurrently when the doctor did an ultrasound examination.

Nasendoscopy. Nasendoscope is a flexible long tube-shaped tool with a camera at the end. This device is inserted through the nose to the throat and is usually done when suspected of malignancy in the nasal area, throat (pharynx), or vocal cords. The patient will be given a local anesthetic in the form of a spray before the procedure is performed.

Panendoscopy, This procedure is performed using general anesthesia. In general, the process is almost the same as nasendoscopy, but using a tube of larger size. With this procedure, we will get a clearer picture of the condition around the nose and throat, and can also remove small tumors.
Patients who are positively diagnosed with oral cancer will undergo further tests to detect the stage and extent of development of oral cancer. This procedure can be done through endoscopy, X-ray, MRI scan, CT scan, and PET scan.

After performing a series of necessary checks, your doctor will then be able to evaluate the severity of your cancer by using a classification method called TNM.

T - denotes the size of the primary (primary) tumor that appears in the mouth. Size is marked with T1 to T4, with T1 showing the smallest tumor size and T4 being the largest and deepest tumor.
N - indicates the presence or absence of tumor spread (metastasis) in the neck or lymph nodes around; N0 means no spread, and N1, N2, and N3 denote the spread to the neck or lymph nodes around.

M - indicating the presence or absence of tumor spread in other body parts. The classification will show how aggressive the mouth cancer you are experiencing, and also in which stage of mouth cancer your experience and the choice of therapy.

Prevention of oral cancer Because the cause is unknown, oral cancer cannot be prevented completely. But you can still take these simple steps to lower the risk as well as inhibiting development, i.e.

1.    Do not use tobacco of any kind, including smoking.
2.    Avoid alcohol consumption.
3.    Apply a healthy and balanced diet, especially by increasing consumption of vegetables and fruits.
4.    Maintain oral hygiene, eg diligent brushing teeth.
5.     Checking dental health regularly, at least once a year.